Digital Inequality

research on skills, uses, and outcomes of Internet technology



From digital skills to tangible outcomes
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21st-century Digital Skills

Social Context of Digital Inequality


Development of the Diagnostic Illiteracy Scale in order to reveal illiteracy among adults

De Greef, M., van Deursen, A., Tubbing, M. & Bohnenn, E. (in press). Development of the DIS-scale (Diagnostic Illiteracy Scale) in order to reveal illiteracy among adults. Lifelong Learning in Europe.


Regarding figures of UNICEF (2008) 22% of the population of the industrialised countries is illiterate. As a result of illiteracy, citizens risk social exclusion in society. According to results of the EU High Level Group of Experts on Literacy (2012) prevention and decrease of illiteracy will be an important goal for future Europe. Still, according to the on-going problems of illiteracy, validated ‘tools’ are required to define if one risks illiteracy. The field of lifelong learning should be more equipped in order to diagnose literacy needs and develop literacy programs on a broad scope of the adult lifecircumstances. Therefore, we proposed a validated diagnostic scale, called the DIS-scale (Diagnostic Illiteracy Scale), concerning illiteracy in order to support the field of lifelong learning in prevention of the current illiteracy problem in nowadays European society.


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