Van Deursen, A.J.A.M., Helsper, E.J., Eynon, R. & Van Dijk, J.A.G.M. (2017). The Compoundness and Sequentiality of Digital Inequalit. International Journal of Communication 11(2017), 452–473
Through a survey with a representative sample of Dutch Internet users, this paper examines compound digital exclusion, that is, whether a person who lacks a particular digital skill also lacks another kind of skill; whether a person who does not engage in a particular way online is also less likely to engage in other ways; and whether a person who does not achieve a certain outcome online is also less likely to achieve another type of outcome. We also tested sequential digital exclusion, whether a lower level of digital skills leads to lower levels of engagement with the Internet resulting in a lower likelihood of an individual achieving tangible outcomes. Both types of digital exclusion are a reality. A certain use can have a strong relation with an outcome in a different domain. Furthermore, those who achieve outcomes in one domain do not necessarily achieve outcomes in another domain. To get a comprehensive picture of the nature of digital exclusion, it is necessary to account for different domains in research.