Van Deursen, A.J.A.M., Bolle, C., Hegner, S.M., Kommers, P.A.M. (2015). Modeling habitual and addictive smartphone behavior. The role of smartphone usage types, emotional intelligence, social stress, self-regulation, age, and gender. Computers in Human Behavior 45, 411-420.
The present study investigates the role of process and social oriented smartphone usage, emotional intelligence, social stress, self-regulation, gender, and age in relation to habitual and addictive smartphone behavior. We conducted an online survey among 386 respondents. The results revealed that habitual smartphone use is an important contributor to addictive smartphone behavior. Process related smartphone use is a strong determinant for both developing habitual and addictive smartphone behavior. People who extensively use their smartphones for social purposes develop smartphone habits faster, which in turn might lead to addictive smartphone behavior. We did not find an influence of emotional intelligence on habitual or addictive smartphone behavior, while social stress positively influences addictive smartphone behavior, and a failure of self-regulation seems to cause a higher risk of addictive smart- phone behavior. Finally, men experience less social stress than women, and use their smartphones less for social purposes. The result is that women have a higher chance in developing habitual or addictive smartphone behavior. Age negatively affects process and social usage, and social stress. There is a positive effect on self-regulation. Older people are therefore less likely to develop habitual or addictive smartphone behaviors.