Van Deursen, A.J.A.M. & Van Dijk, J.A.G.M. (2015). Toward a Multifaceted Model of Internet Access for Understanding Digital Divides: An Empirical Investigation. The Information Society, 31(5), 379-391.
In this investigation, a multifaceted model of Internet appropriation is tested. The model contains motivational, material, skills, and usage access. A study among a representative sample of the Dutch population revealed that although the emphasis on the digital divide has begun to incorporate skills and usage, motivational and material access remain relevant since they operate throughout the whole process of Internet appropriation. A lack of physical access might have been reduced in developed countries, material access remains relevant. All access stages have their own grounds of determination and interact together to shape digital inequalities. Policies should address them simultaneously. Overall, younger people with higher educational levels and higher income and in some areas males, have better Internet access, a finding that is reinforced in every step of the access sequence. Furthermore, individuals who are motivated to use the Internet and who use several devices are not necessarily developing skills and improving their usage diversity.